Sabtu, Desember 01, 2007

Mari kita peringhati HARI AIDS SEDUNIA - 1 DESEMBER 2007

Sejarah AIDS

1926
Beberapa ilmuwan menganggap HIV menyebar dari monyet ke manusia antara 1926-1946. Penelitian baru-baru ini menunjukkan bahwa HIV kemungkinan pertama meloncat dari simpanse ke manusia pada 1675 tetapi jenis virus itu tidak menetapkan diri sebagai epidemi hingga 1930.

1959
Seorang pria meninggal dunia di Kongo dengan apa yang dianggap peneliti sebagai kematian AIDS pertama yang terbukti.

1978
Pria gay di AS dan Swedia--dan pria heteroseks di Tanzania dan Haiti--mulai menunjukkan tanda-tanda apa yang nantinya akan disebut AIDS.

1980
Kematian karena AIDS di AS: 31 (termasuk semua kasus sebelum 1981).

1981
Seorang teknisi obat di Centers for Disease Control (CDC), AS, mencatat bahwa sejumlah permintaan yang luar biasa tinggi untuk obat pentamidine yang dipakai dalam pengobatan pneumonia Pneumocystis carinii (PCP). Ini mengakibatkan laporan ilmiah tentang PCP yang luar biasa pada lima pria gay dari Los Angeles, AS.
Penelitian yang dimulai mencari penyebab tidak hanya untuk PCP yang terjadi pada pria gay di Los Angeles, tetapi juga untuk sarkoma Kaposi yang terjadi pada beberapa pria gay di New York, AS. Calon utama penyebab yang timbul adalah popper atau penghirup nitrat. Penyebab lain yang mungkin adalah unsur menular.
Sebelum akhir tahun, kasus PCP pertama tampak di antara pecandu narkoba.
422 kasus didiagnosis di AS; 159 meninggal dunia.

1982
Sindrom, yaitu sekumpulan gejala, disebut GRID (Gay-Related Immune Deficiency--penurunan kekebalan tubuh yang dihubungkan dengan kaum gay) oleh beberapa ilmuwan, dan mulai jelas bahwa ini disebabkan oleh suatu unsur yang menular, mungkin suatu virus yang menyebar melalui darah.
Sindrom ini diberi nama baru, yaitu AIDS, karena menjadi jelas itu tidak hanya mempengaruhi pria gay. AIDS adalah kependekan dari Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (sindrom dapatan yang disebabkan oleh penurunan sistem kekebalan tubuh). Penerima transfusi darah dengan AIDS pertama diketahui di AS, serta juga bayi pertama dengan AIDS.
AIDS dilaporkan terdapat di 14 negara di seluruh dunia.

pada akhir tahun 1983, para peneliti menemukan satu jenis retrovirus yang mulanya diberi nama Lympadenopati associated virus, dan pada bulan Mei tahun 1986 disepakati menggunakan satu nama saja yaitu Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).


Secara klinis gambaran penyakit yang diakibatkan oleh infeksi HIV ini dapat terlihat dalam 4 tahap berurutan. Tahap-tahap ini sangat berkolerasi dengan gambaran laboratorium akibat perubahan fungsi imunitas dan aktivitas virus.
1. Tahap pertama, tahap infeksi primer (primary infection)
2. Tahap kedua, tahap infeksi dini (early infection)
3. Tahap ketiga, tahap infeksi menengah (middle infection)
4. Tahap keempat, tahap sakit HIV berat (severe HIV disease)
Tahap inilah yang disebut AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)


Orang dengan status HIV Positif tidak dapat dibedakan dari penampilannya dengan orang normal lainnya. Lain halnya bila sudah mencapai tahap AIDS, dimana penyakit penyakit lain muncul karena tidak adanya kekebalan tubuh.
Untuk mencapai tahap AIDS ini diperlukan waktu yang cukup lama, antara 3 tahun setelah terinfeksi HIV sampai dengan 10 tahun setelah terinfeksi, bila tidak memperoleh pengobatan.
Orang dengan HIV Positif yang mengikuti pengobatan rutin, akan memiliki harapan hidup yang jauh lebih panjang, paling sedikit 20 tahun setelah terinfeksi.

Virus HIV dapat ditularkan melalui :
• Hubungan sex tanpa penggunaan kondom (unsafe sex)
• Penggunaan jarum suntik bekas.
• Body piercing atau tato yang tidak memakai alat-alat yang steril
• Penularan dari ibu ke bayi selama masa kehamilan, pada waktu melahirkan atau menyusui
• Transfusi darah atau donor darah


Virus HIV tidak dapat ditularkan melalui :
• Batuk
• Ciuman
• Bersin
• Meludah
• Air mata
• Pemakaian sendok garpu bersama
• Sprei
• Toilet
• Kamar mandi
• Ataupun melalui sentuhan kulit.
Serangga seperti nyamuk tidak dapat menularkan virus HIV



MARI KITA HENTIKAN DISKRIMINASI TERHADAP ORANG DENGAH HIV/AIDS (ODHA)
Seperti yang telah disebutkan di atas, penularan HIV tidak akan terjadi melalui kontak sosial biasa


sumber :

- www.depkes.go.id
- www.aidsindonesia.or.id
- www.spiritia.or.id
- www.multiculturalhivhepc.net.au
- www.druginfo.adf.org.au
- www.unaids.org
- www.ahrn.net
- www.worldaidsday.org

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